If you have a need to backup Veeam SQL database directly from the Veeam backup server, by default Veeam doesn’t include the SQL management studio on the installation part. You can install it, but if you don’t want to install it, you can take the backup via SQLCMD as the following.
You can first check, and collect any information about the Veeam database name, SQL instance etc in the following registry entry.
HKLM\SOFTWARE\Veeam\Veeam Backup and Replication\SqlDatabaseName: VeeamBackup
HKLM\SOFTWARE\Veeam\Veeam Backup and Replication\SqlInstanceName: VEEAMSQL2016
HKLM\SOFTWARE\Veeam\Veeam Backup and Replication\SqlServerName: SERVERNAME
Open an Administrative Command Prompt and connect to SQL instance:
SQLCMD -S SERVERNAME\VEEAMSQL2016 BACKUP DATABASE VeeamBackup TO DISK = 'D:\DB_BACKUP\VeeamBackup.bak' GO
Change any parameter to match your environment.
Wait the process until done. Once done, it will show that BACKUP DATABASE successfully processes xxx pages in xxx seconds. The backup will have .bak format.